Explore countries that start with M and delve into their area, population, and GDP. Discover fascinating insights into these nations beginning with the letter M, providing a comprehensive overview of their geographical size, demographic statistics, and economic strength with Emily E. Garrison!
Quick answer about countries that start with M
There are 22 all countries that start with M:
|Macau (administrative region of China)||Asia||115.3 km2||672,800||$54,295|
|Maldives||South Asia||300 km2||521,021||$17,558|
|Mali||West Africa||1,241,238 km2||21,359,722||$912|
|Marshall Islands||Pacific Ocean||181.43 km2||42,418||$3,866|
|Martinique (department of France)||Caribbean||1,128 km2||361,225||N/A|
|Mauritius||Indian Ocean||2,040 km2||1,265,475||$11,751|
|Mayotte (department of France)||Indian Ocean||374 km2||310,022||N/A|
|Mexico||North America||1,972,550 km2||129,875,529||$13,803|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Oceania||702 km2||104,468||$3,735|
|Mongolia||East Asia||1,564,116 km2||3,227,863||$5,348|
|Montenegro (part of Yugoslavia)||Europe||13,812 km2||602,445||$11,338|
|Montserrat (UK territory)||Caribbean||102 km2||4,390||N/A|
|Morocco||North Africa||446,300 km2||37,984,655||$3,979|
|Myanmar||Southeast Asia||676,570 km2||57,526,449||$1,381|
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Detailed information about all countries that start with M
Explore a comprehensive database providing detailed information about countries that start with M. From historical backgrounds to current demographics, discover key insights, travel tips, and cultural highlights for each nation. Our platform offers a one-stop resource for your curiosity about countries that begin with the letter M.
Macau (administrative region of China)
- National language: Cantonese – Macanese
- Area: 115.3 km2
- Population: 672,800
- Currency: Macanese pataca (MOP)
- GDP (nominal): $54,295 Per capita
Macau or Macao (English: /məˈkaʊ/ ⓘ, mə-KOW; Portuguese: [mɐˈkaw]; Chinese: 澳門, Cantonese: [ōu.mǔːn]), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China (MSAR), is a city and special administrative region of China in the western Pearl River Delta by the South China Sea. With a population of about 680,000 and an area of 32.9 km2 (12.7 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world.
Formerly a Portuguese colony, the territory of Portuguese Macau was first leased to Portugal as a trading post by the Ming dynasty in 1557. Portugal paid an annual rent and administered the territory under Chinese sovereignty until 1887. Portugal later gained perpetual colonial rights in the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking.
The colony remained under Portuguese rule until 1999, when it was transferred to China. Macau is a special administrative region of China, which maintains separate governing and economic systems from those of mainland China under the principle of “one country, two systems”.The unique blend of Portuguese and Chinese architecture in the city’s historic centre led to its inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005.
Originally a sparsely populated collection of coastal islands, Macau, often referred to as the “Las Vegas of the East”, has become a major resort city and a top destination for gambling tourism, with a gambling industry seven times larger than that of Las Vegas.
The city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, US$43,770 in 2021, and its GDP per capita by purchasing power parity is one of the highest in the world. It has a very high Human Development Index, as calculated by the Macau government, and the fourth-highest life expectancy in the world. The territory is highly urbanised; two-thirds of the total land area is built on land reclaimed from the sea.
- Continent: Africa
- Capital: Antananarivo
- National language: Malagasy • French
- Religion: 84.7% Christianity, 7.3% no religion, 4.7% traditional faiths, 3.1% Islam, 0.3% others
- Area: 587,041 km2
- Population: 28,812,195
- Currency: Ariary (MGA)
- GDP (nominal): $529 Per capita
Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, is an island country lying off the southeastern coast of Africa. It is the world’s fourth largest island, the second-largest island country and the 44th largest country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Antananarivo.
Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from Africa during the Early Jurassic, around 180 million years ago, and split from the Indian subcontinent around 90 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation; consequently, it is a biodiversity hotspot and one of the world’s 17 megadiverse countries, with over 90% of wildlife being endemic. The island has a subtropical to tropical maritime climate.
Madagascar was first settled during or before the mid first millennium AD by Austronesian peoples, presumably arriving on outrigger canoes from present-day Indonesia. These were joined around the ninth century AD by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. Subsequently, the Malagasy ethnic group is often divided into 18 or more subgroups, of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands.
Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of it was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles. The monarchy was ended in 1897 by the annexation by France, from which Madagascar gained independence in 1960.
The country has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed republics, and has been governed as a constitutional democracy since 1992. Following a political crisis and military coup in 2009, Madagascar underwent a protracted transition towards its fourth and current republic, with constitutional governance being restored in January 2014.
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- Continent: Africa
- Capital: Lilongwe
- National language: English
- Religion: 82.3% Christianity, 13.8% Islam, 2.1% none, 1.2% traditional faiths, 0.6% other
- Area: 118,484 km2
- Population: 20,091,635
- Currency: Malawian kwacha (D) (MWK)
- GDP (nominal): $579 Per capita
Malawi (/məˈlɔːwi, məˈlɑːwi, ˈmæləwi/; Chichewa pronunciation: [maláβi] or [maláwi]; Tumbuka: Malaŵi), officially the Republic of Malawi and formerly known as Nyasaland, is a landlocked country in Southeastern Africa. It is bordered by Zambia to the west, Tanzania to the north and northeast, and Mozambique to the east, south and southwest. Malawi spans over 118,484 km2 (45,747 sq mi) and has an estimated population of 19,431,566 (as of January 2021). Malawi’s capital (and largest city) is Lilongwe. Its second-largest is Blantyre, its third-largest is Mzuzu and its fourth-largest is its former capital, Zomba.
The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled around the 10th century by migrating Bantu groups. Centuries later, in 1891, the area was colonised by the British as the British Central African Protectorate, renamed Nyasaland in 1907. In 1953, it became a protectorate within the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
The Federation was dissolved in 1963. In 1964, the protectorate was ended: Nyasaland became an independent country as a Commonwealth realm under Prime Minister Hastings Banda, and was renamed Malawi. Two years later, Banda became president by converting the country into a one-party presidential republic. Declared President for life in 1971, Malawi’s next few decades of independence were characterized by Banda’s highly repressive dictatorship.
Following the introduction of a multiparty system in 1993, Banda was defeated in the 1994 general election. Today, Malawi has a democratic, multi-party republic headed by an elected president and has continued to experience peaceful transitions of power. The country’s military, the Malawian Defence Force, includes an army, a navy, and an air wing.
Malawi’s foreign policy is pro-Western. It maintains positive diplomatic relations with most countries, and participates in several international organisations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the African Union (AU).
Malawi is one of the world’s least-developed countries. The economy is heavily based on agriculture, and it has a largely rural and rapidly growing population. The Malawian government depends heavily on outside aid to meet its development needs, although the amount needed (and the aid offered) has decreased since 2000.
The Malawian government faces challenges in its efforts to build and expand the economy, to improve education, healthcare, and environmental protection, and to become financially independent despite widespread unemployment. Since 2005, Malawi has developed several policies that focus on addressing these issues, and the country’s outlook appears to be improving: key indicators of progress in the economy, education, and healthcare were seen in 2007 and 2008.
- Continent: Asia
- Capital: Kuala Lumpur
- National language: Malay
- Religion: 63.5% Sunni Islam, 18.7% Buddhism, 9.1% Christianity, 6.1% Hinduism, 0.9% other, 1.8% unknown
- Area: 330,803 km2
- Population: 33,200,000
- Currency: Malaysian ringgit (MYR)
- GDP (nominal): $13,034 Per capita
Malaysia (/məˈleɪziə/ ⓘ mə-LAY-zee-ə; Malay: [malɛjsia] ⓘ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions: Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo’s East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia.
East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia, as well as a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital, the country’s largest city, and the seat of the legislative branch of the federal government. Putrajaya is the administrative centre, which represents the seat of both the executive branch (the Cabinet, federal ministries, and federal agencies) and the judicial branch of the federal government.
With a population of over 33 million, the country is the world’s 43rd-most populous country. The country is one of 17 megadiverse countries and is home to numerous endemic species. Tanjung Piai is the southernmost point of continental Eurasia. The country is located in the tropics.
The country has its origins in the Malay kingdoms, which, from the 18th century on, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate. During World War Two, British Malaya, along with other nearby British and American colonies, was occupied by the Empire of Japan.
Following three years of occupation, Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946 and then restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948. The country achieved independence on 31 August 1957. On 16 September 1963, independent Malaya united with the then British crown colonies of North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore to become Malaysia. In August 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation and became a separate, independent country.
The country is multiethnic and multicultural, which has a significant effect on its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Chinese, Indians, and indigenous peoples. The official language is Malaysian Malay, a standard form of the Malay language. English remains an active second language. While recognising Islam as the official religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. The government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is an elected monarch, chosen from among the nine state sultans every five years. The head of government is the prime minister.
After independence, the gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average rate of 6.5% per year for almost 50 years. The country’s economy has traditionally been driven by its natural resources, but it is expanding into commerce, tourism, and medical tourism. The country has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fifth-largest in Southeast Asia and 36th-largest in the world.
The country is a founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the East Asia Summit (EAS), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the Commonwealth, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
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- Continent: South Asia
- Capital: Malé
- National language: Dhivehi
- Religion: Sunni Islam (official)
- Area: 300 km2
- Population: 521,021
- Currency: Maldivian rufiyaa (MVR)
- GDP (nominal): $17,558 Per capita
The Maldives (/ˈmɔːldivz/ MAWL-deevz; Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ, romanized: Dhivehi Raajje, Dhivehi pronunciation: [diʋehi ɾaːd͡ʒːe]), officially the Republic of Maldives (ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ, Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa, Dhivehi pronunciation: [diʋehi ɾaːd͡ʒːeːge d͡ʒumhuːɾijjaː]), is an archipelagic state and country in South Asia, situated in the Indian Ocean. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and India, about 750 kilometres (470 miles; 400 nautical miles) from the Asian continent’s mainland. The Maldives’ chain of 26 atolls stretches across the equator from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to Addu Atoll in the south.
Comprising a territory spanning roughly 90,000 square kilometres (35,000 sq mi) including the sea, land area of all the islands comprises 298 square kilometres (115 sq mi), the Maldives is the smallest country in Asia as well as one of the world’s most geographically dispersed sovereign states and as well as one of the smallest Muslim-majority countries by land area and, with a population of 521,021, the 2nd least populous country in Asia. Malé is the capital and the most populated city, traditionally called the “King’s Island”, where the ancient royal dynasties ruled from its central location.
The Maldivian Archipelago is located on the Chagos–Laccadive Ridge, a vast submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean; this also forms a terrestrial ecoregion, together with the Chagos Archipelago and Lakshadweep. With an average ground-level elevation of 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) above sea level, and a highest natural point of only 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in), it is the world’s lowest-lying country. (Some sources state the highest point, Mount Villingili, as 5.1 metres or 17 feet.)
The Maldives has been inhabited for over 2,500 years. In the 12th century Islam reached the Maldivian Archipelago, which was consolidated as a sultanate, developing strong commercial and cultural ties with Asia and Africa. From the mid-16th century, the region came under the increasing influence of European colonial powers, with the Maldives becoming a British protectorate in 1887.
Independence from the United Kingdom came in 1965, and a presidential republic was established in 1968 with an elected People’s Majlis. The ensuing decades have seen political instability, efforts at democratic reform, and environmental challenges posed by climate change and rising sea levels.
The Maldives became a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). It is also a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non-Aligned Movement. The World Bank classifies the Maldives as having an upper-middle income economy.
The Maldives is a Dialogue Partner of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Fishing has historically been the dominant economic activity, and remains the largest sector by far, followed by the rapidly growing tourism industry. The Maldives rates “high” on the Human Development Index, with per capita income significantly higher than other SAARC nations.
The Maldives was a member of the Commonwealth of Nations from July 1982 until withdrawing from the organisation in October 2016 in protest of allegations by other nations of its human rights abuses and failing democracy. The Maldives rejoined the Commonwealth on 1 February 2020 after showing evidence of functioning democratic processes and popular support.
- Continent: West Africa
- Capital: Bamako
- National language: Bambara – Bobo
- Religion: 95% Islam, 5% Others
- Area: 1,241,238 km2
- Population: 21,359,722
- Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
- GDP (nominal): $912 Per capita
Mali (/ˈmɑːli/ ⓘ; Bambara pronunciation: [ma.li]), officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of over 1,241,238 square kilometres (479,245 sq mi). The country is bordered on the north by Algeria, on the east by Niger, on the northwest by Mauritania, on the south by Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire, and on the west by Guinea and Senegal. The population of Mali is 21.9 million. 67% of its population was estimated to be under the age of 25 in 2017. Its capital and largest city is Bamako. It has 13 official languages, of which Bambara is the most spoken one.
The sovereign state of Mali consists of nineteen regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert. The country’s southern part is in the Sudanian savanna, where the majority of inhabitants live, and both the Niger and Senegal rivers pass through. The country’s economy centres on agriculture and mining.
One of Mali’s most prominent natural resources is gold, and the country is the third largest producer of gold on the continent of Africa. Mali was home to the man reputed to be the richest man who has ever lived, known as Mansa Musa. The country is also known for its exports of salt.
Present-day Mali was once part of three extremely powerful and wealthy West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire (for which Ghana is named), the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire was the wealthiest country in Africa, covering an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of the continent.
Mali was also one of the wealthiest countries on earth, and its emperor at its zenith, Mansa Musa, is believed to be one of the wealthiest individuals in history. Besides being an economic powerhouse, medieval Mali was a centre of Islam, culture and knowledge, with Timbuktu becoming a renowned place of learning with its university, one of the oldest in the world still active. The expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the empire in 1468, followed by a Saadian army which defeated the Songhai in 1591.
In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal’s withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.
In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, and in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. The conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and later fighting between Tuareg and other rebel factions. In response to territorial gains, the French military launched Operation Serval in January 2013.
A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north, although the conflict still continued. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013. In the early 2020s, Mali experienced two military takeovers by Assimi Goïta.
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- Continent: Europe
- Capital: Valletta
- National language: Maltese – English
- Religion: 88.5% Christianity, 5.1% no religion, 3.9% Islam, 1.4% Hinduism, 1.1% other
- Area: 316 km2
- Population: 519,562
- Currency: Euro (€) (EUR)
- GDP (nominal): $38,715 Per capita
Malta (/ˈmɒltə/ ⓘ MOL-tə, /ˈmɔːltə/ MAWL-tə, Maltese: [ˈmɐːltɐ]), officially the Republic of Malta (Maltese: Repubblika ta’ Malta [rɛˈpʊbːlɪkɐ tɐ ˈmɐːltɐ]), is an island country in Southern Europe, located in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of an archipelago between Italy and Libya. It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Sicily (Italy), 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia, and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya. The official languages are Maltese and English, and 66% of the population is conversant in Italian.
With a population of about 516,000 over an area of 316 km2 (122 sq mi), Malta is the tenth-smallest country by area and fifth most densely populated sovereign country. Its capital is Valletta, the smallest national capital in the European Union by area and population. According to 2020 data by Eurostat, the Functional Urban Area and metropolitan region covered the whole island and has a population of 480,134. According to the United Nations, ESPON and EU Commission, “the whole territory of Malta constitutes a single urban region”. Malta increasingly is referred to as a city-state.
Malta has been inhabited since approximately 5900 BC. Its location in the centre of the Mediterranean has historically given it great strategic importance as a naval base, with a succession of powers having contested and ruled the islands, including the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Normans, Aragonese, Knights of St. John, French, and British.
While Christianity has been present since the time of the early Christians, Malta was predominantly a Muslim country under Arab rule in the Middle Ages. Muslim rule ended with the Norman invasion of Malta by Roger I in 1091. Malta became a British colony in 1813, serving as the headquarters for the British Mediterranean Fleet.
It was besieged by the Axis powers during World War II and was an important Allied base for operations in North Africa and the Mediterranean. The British parliament passed the Malta Independence Act in 1964, giving Malta independence, with Elizabeth II as its queen. The country became a republic in 1974. It has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations since independence, and joined the European Union in 2004; it became part of the eurozone monetary union in 2008.
Catholicism is the state religion, but the Constitution of Malta guarantees freedom of conscience and religious worship. The economy of Malta is heavily reliant on tourism, and the country promotes itself as a Mediterranean tourist destination with its warmer climate compared to the rest of Europe, numerous recreational areas, and architectural and historical monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum, Valletta, and seven megalithic temples which are some of the oldest free-standing structures in the world.
- Continent: Pacific Ocean
- Capital: Delap-Uliga-Djarrit
- National language: Marshallese – English
- Religion: 96.2% Christianity, 1.1% no religion, 2.7% other
- Area: 181.43 km2
- Population: 42,418
- Currency: United States dollar (USD)
- GDP (nominal): $3,866 Per capita
The Marshall Islands (Marshallese: Ṃajeḷ), officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Marshallese: Aolepān Aorōkin Ṃajeḷ), is an island country west of the International Date Line and north of the equator in the Micronesia region in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. The territory consists of 29 coral atolls and five islands, divided across two island chains: Ratak in the east and Ralik in the west. 97.87% of its territory is water, the largest proportion of water to land of any sovereign state.
The country shares maritime boundaries with Wake Island to the north, Kiribati to the southeast, Nauru to the south, and the Federated States of Micronesia to the west. The capital and largest city is Majuro, home to approximately half of the country’s population.
Austronesian settlers reached the Marshall Islands as early as the 2nd millennium BC and introduced Southeast Asian crops, including coconuts, giant swamp taro, and breadfruit, as well as domesticated chickens which made the islands permanently habitable. Several Spanish expeditions visited the islands in the mid-16th century, but Spanish galleons usually sailed a Pacific route farther north and avoided the Marshalls.
European maps and charts named the group for British captain John Marshall, who explored the region in 1788. American Protestant missionaries and Western business interests began arriving in the 1850s. German copra traders dominated the economy in the 1870s and 1880s, and the German Empire annexed the Marshalls as a protectorate in 1885. The Empire of Japan occupied the islands in the autumn of 1914 at the beginning of World War I.
After the war, the Marshalls and other former German Pacific colonies north of the equator became the Japanese South Seas Mandate. The United States invaded the islands during World War II and administered them as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands after the war. Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 67 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll and Enewetak Atoll.
The U.S. government formed the Congress of Micronesia in 1965, a plan for increased self-governance of Pacific islands. In May 1979, the United States provided independence to the Marshall Islands by recognizing its constitution and president, Amata Kabua. Full sovereignty or self-government was achieved in a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Marshall Islands has been a member of the Pacific Community (SPC) since 1983 and a United Nations member state since 1991.
Politically, the Marshall Islands is a parliamentary republic with an executive presidency in free association with the United States, with the U.S. providing defense, subsidies, and access to U.S.-based agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission and the United States Postal Service. With few natural resources, the islands’ wealth is based on a service economy, as well as fishing and agriculture; aid from the United States represents a large percentage of the islands’ gross domestic product, but most financial aid from the Compact of Free Association expires in 2023. The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. In 2018, it also announced plans for a new cryptocurrency to be used as legal tender.
Martinique (department of France)
- Continent: Caribbean
- National language: French
- Religion: 91.6% Christianity, 0.5% Baháʼí, 0.5% Islam, 0.3% Hinduism, 7.1% Other
- Area: 1,128 km2
- Population: 361,225
- Currency: Euro (€) (EUR)
Martinique (/ˌmɑːrtɪˈniːk/ MAR-tin-EEK, French: [maʁtinik] ⓘ; Martinican Creole: Matinik or Matnik; Kalinago: Madinina or Madiana) is an island in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the eastern Caribbean Sea. A part of the French (Antilles) West Indies, Martinique is a single territorial collectivity of the French Republic. It is also part of the European Union as an Outermost Region within the special territories of members of the European Economic Area, but is not part of the Schengen Area or the European Union Customs Union. The currency in use is the euro.
Martinique has a land area of 1,128 km2 (436 sq mi) and a population of 364,508 inhabitants as of January 2019. One of the Windward Islands, it lies directly north of Saint Lucia, northwest of Barbados and south of Dominica. Virtually the entire population speaks both French (the sole official language) and Martinican Creole.
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- Continent: Africa
- Capital: Nouakchott
- National language: Arabic
- Religion: Sunni Islam (official)
- Area: 1,030,000 km2
- Population: 4,244,878
- Currency: Ouguiya (MRU)
- GDP (nominal): $2,337 Per capita
Mauritania, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Arabic: الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية), is a sovereign country in Northwest Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest.
By land area, Mauritania is the 11th-largest country in Africa and the 28th-largest in the world, and 90% of its territory is situated in the Sahara. Most of its population of 4.4 million lives in the temperate south of the country, with roughly one-third concentrated in the capital and largest city, Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast.
The country’s name derives from the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania, located in North Africa within the ancient Maghreb. Berbers occupied what is now Mauritania beginning in the third century AD. Arabs under the Umayyad Caliphate conquered the area in the late seventh century, bringing Islam, Arab culture, and the Arabic language. In the early 20th century, Mauritania was colonized by France as part of French West Africa.
It achieved independence in 1960, but has since experienced recurrent coups and periods of military dictatorship. The most recent coup, in 2008, was led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, who won subsequent presidential elections in 2009 and 2014. He was succeeded by Mohamed Ould Ghazouani following the 2019 elections, which were considered Mauritania’s first peaceful transition of power since independence.
Mauritania is culturally and politically part of the Arab world; it is a member of the Arab League and Arabic is the sole official language. The official religion is Islam, and almost all inhabitants are Sunni Muslims. Despite its prevailing Arab identity, Mauritanian society is multiethnic; the Bidhan, or so-called “white moors”, make up 30% of the population, while the Haratin, or so-called “black moors”, comprise 40%. Both groups reflect a fusion of Arab-Berber ethnicity, language, and culture. The remaining 30% of the population comprises various sub-Saharan ethnic groups.
Despite an abundance of natural resources, including iron ore and petroleum, Mauritania remains poor; its economy is based primarily on agriculture, livestock, and fishing. Mauritania is also generally seen as having a poor human rights record and is particularly censured for the perpetuation of slavery as an institution within Mauritanian society. It was the last country in the world to abolish the practice in 1981, and only criminalized the ownership of slaves outright in 2007.
- Continent: Indian Ocean
- Capital: Port Louis
- National language: English – French
- Religion: 48.54% Hinduism, 32.71% Christianity, 17.30% Islam, 1.45% Others / None
- Area: 2,040 km2
- Population: 1,265,475
- Currency: Mauritian rupee (MUR)
- GDP (nominal): $11,751 Per capita
Mauritius (/məˈrɪʃ(i)əs, mɔː-/ ⓘ mər-ISH-(ee-)əs, mor-; French: Maurice [mɔʁis, moʁis] ⓘ; Mauritian Creole: Moris [moʁis]), officially the Republic of Mauritius (French: République de Maurice; Mauritian Creole: Repiblik Moris), is an island country in the Indian Ocean, about 2,000 kilometres (1,100 nautical miles) off the southeastern coast of East Africa, east of Madagascar. It includes the main island (also called Mauritius) and Rodrigues, Agaléga, and St. Brandon.
The islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues, along with nearby Réunion (a French overseas department), are part of the Mascarene Islands. The main island of Mauritius, where most of the people live, has the capital and largest city, Port Louis. The country spans 2,040 square kilometres (790 sq mi) and has an exclusive economic zone covering 2,300,000 square kilometres (670,000 square nautical miles). Mauritius is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.
It is believed that Arab sailors first discovered the uninhabited island about 975, naming it Dina Arobi. Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island in 1507; it was given the Portuguese names Cirne and Do-Cerne on early Portuguese maps. A Dutch fleet, under the command of Admiral Van Warwyck, landed at what is now the Grand Port District and took possession of the island in 1598, renaming the uninhabited islands after Maurice, Prince of Orange.
A succession of short-lived Dutch attempts at permanent settlement took place over a century with the aim of exploiting the local ebony forests, and of establishing consistent production of sugar and arrack using cane plant cuttings imported from Java along with over three hundred Malagasy slaves; these efforts finally were abandoned. France took control in 1715, renaming the island “Isle de France”. In 1810, the United Kingdom seized the island; four years later, under the Treaty of Paris, France ceded Mauritius and its dependencies to the United Kingdom.
The British colony of Mauritius included Rodrigues, Agaléga, St. Brandon, the Chagos Archipelago, and until 1906 the Seychelles. Mauritius and France dispute sovereignty over the island of Tromelin, because the treaty did not mention it specifically. Mauritius became the British Empire’s main sugar-producing colony and remained a primarily sugar-dominated plantation-based colony until independence, in 1968.
Mayotte (department of France)
- Continent: Indian Ocean
- Area: 374 km2
- Population: 310,022
- Currency: Euro (€) (EUR)
Mayotte (/maɪˈɒt/; French: Mayotte, [majɔt] ⓘ; Shimaore: Maore, IPA: [maˈore]; Kibushi: Maori, IPA: [maˈori]), officially the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte), is an overseas department and region and single territorial collectivity of France. It is located in the northern part of the Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Southeastern Africa, between Northwestern Madagascar and Northeastern Mozambique.
Mayotte consists of a main island, Grande-Terre (or Maore), a smaller island, Petite-Terre (or Pamanzi), as well as several islets around these two. Mayotte is the most prosperous territory in the Mozambique Channel, making it a major destination for immigration.
Mayotte’s land area is 374 square kilometres (144 sq mi) and, with its 310,022 people according to January 2023 official estimates, is very densely populated at 829 inhabitants per km2 (2,073 per sq mi). The biggest city and prefecture is Mamoudzou on Grande-Terre. The Dzaoudzi–Pamandzi International Airport is located on the neighbouring island of Petite-Terre. The territory is also known as Maore, the native name of its main island.
Mayotte is one of the overseas departments of France as well as one of the 18 regions of France, with the same status as the departments of Metropolitan France. It is an outermost region of the European Union and, as an overseas department of France, part of the eurozone.
French is the official language and is spoken as a second language by an increasing part of the population, with 63% of the population 14 years and older reporting in the 2007 census that they could speak it. The native languages of Mayotte are Shimaore, which is the most spoken, and the lesser spoken Kibushi, a Malagasy language, of which there are two varieties, Kibushi sakalava, most closely related to the Sakalava dialect of Malagasy, and Kibushi antalaotsi, most closely related to the dialect spoken by the Antalaotra of Madagascar. Both have been influenced by Shimaore.
- Continent: North America
- Capital: Mexico City
- National language: Spanish
- Religion: 56% Roman Catholic, 17% No religion, 10% Protestant, 7% Other, 5% Other Christian, 5% Prefer not to say, 1% Muslim
- Area: 1,972,550 km2
- Population: 129,875,529
- Currency: Mexican peso (MXN)
- GDP (nominal): $13,803 Per capita
Mexico (Spanish: México), officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 km2 (761,610 sq mi), making it the world’s 13th-largest country by area; with a population of almost 130 million, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish speakers. Mexico is organized as a federal republic comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital.
Human presence in Pre-Columbian Mexico goes back to 8,000 BCE. It became one of the world’s six cradles of civilization. The Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations, including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha. The Aztecs dominated the region in the century before European contact. In 1521, the Spanish Empire and its indigenous allies conquered the Aztec Empire from its capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), establishing the colony of New Spain.
Over the next three centuries, Spain and the Catholic Church expanded the territory, enforced Christianity and spread the Spanish language. With the discovery of rich deposits of silver in Zacatecas and Guanajuato, New Spain became one of the most important mining centers worldwide. The colonial order came to an end in the early nineteenth century with the Mexican War of Independence.
Mexico’s early history as an independent nation state was marked by political and socioeconomic upheaval, both domestically and in foreign affairs. The United States invaded as a consequence of the Texas Revolt by American settlers, which led to the Mexican–American War and huge territorial losses in 1848.
After the introduction of liberal reforms in the Constitution of 1857, conservatives reacted with the War of Reform and prompted France to invade the country and install an Empire, against the Republican resistance led by liberal President Benito Juárez, which emerged victorious. The last decades of the 19th century were dominated by the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz, who sought to modernize Mexico and restore order.
However, the Porfiriato era led to great social unrest and ended with the outbreak in 1910 of the decade-long Mexican Revolution (civil war). This conflict led to profound changes, including the proclamation of the 1917 Constitution, which remains in effect to this day. The remaining war generals ruled as a succession of presidents until the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) emerged in 1929.
The PRI governed Mexico for the next 70 years, first under a set of paternalistic developmental policies of considerable economic success. During World War II Mexico also played an important role for the Allied war effort. Nonetheless, the PRI regime resorted to repression and electoral fraud to maintain power, and moved the country to a more US-aligned neoliberal economic policy during the late 20th century. This culminated with the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994, which caused a major indigenous rebellion in the state of Chiapas. PRI lost the presidency for the first time in 2000, against the conservative party (PAN).
> Related post: All countries that start with G: Area, Population & GDP
Federated States of Micronesia
- Continent: Oceania
- Capital: Palikir
- National language: English
- Religion: 95.3% Christianity, 4.1% folk religions, 0.6% none / other
- Area: 702 km2
- Population: 104,468
- Currency: United States dollar (USD)
- GDP (nominal): $3,735 Per capita
The Federated States of Micronesia (/ˌmaɪkroʊˈniːʒə/ ⓘ; abbreviated FSM), or simply Micronesia, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania. It consists of four states—from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae—that are spread across the western Pacific. Together, the states comprise around 607 islands (a combined land area of approximately 702 km2 or 271 sq mi) that cover a longitudinal distance of almost 2,700 km (1,700 mi) just north of the equator.
They lie northeast of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, south of Guam and the Marianas, west of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, east of Palau and the Philippines, about 2,900 km (1,800 mi) north of eastern Australia, 3,400 km (2,100 mi) southeast of Japan, and some 4,000 km (2,485 mi) southwest of the main islands of the Hawaiian Islands.
While the FSM’s total land area is quite small, the country’s waters occupy nearly 3 million km2 (1.2 million sq mi) of the Pacific Ocean, giving the country the 14th-largest exclusive economic zone in the world. The sovereign island nation’s capital is Palikir, located on Pohnpei Island, while the largest city is Weno, located in the Chuuk Atoll.
Each of its four states is centered on one or more main volcanic islands, and all but Kosrae include numerous outlying atolls. The Federated States of Micronesia is spread across part of the Caroline Islands in the wider region of Micronesia, which consists of thousands of small islands divided among several countries. The term Micronesia may refer to the Federated States or to the region as a whole.
The FSM was formerly a part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI), a United Nations Trust Territory under U.S. administration, but it formed its own constitutional government on May 10, 1979, becoming a sovereign state after independence was attained on November 3, 1986, under a Compact of Free Association with the United States.
Other neighboring island entities, and also former members of the TTPI, formulated their own constitutional governments and became the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau (ROP). The FSM has a seat in the United Nations and has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983.
- Continent: Europe
- Capital: Chișinău
- National language: Romanian
- Religion: 91.8% Christianity, 0.3% other religions, 5.5% no religion, 2.4% unspecified
- Area: 33,843 km2
- Population: 2,512,758
- Currency: Moldovan leu (MDL)
- GDP (nominal): $6,410 Per capita
Moldova (/mɒlˈdoʊvə/ ⓘ mol-DOH-və, sometimes UK: /ˈmɒldəvə/ MOL-də-və; Romanian pronunciation: [molˈdova]), officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, on the northeastern corner of the Balkans. The country spans a total of 33,483 km2 (13,067 sq mi) and has a population of approximately 2.5 million as of January 2023.
Moldova is bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The unrecognised breakaway state of Transnistria lies across the Dniester river on the country’s eastern border with Ukraine. Moldova is a unitary parliamentary representative democratic republic with its capital in Chișinău, the country’s largest city and main cultural and commercial centre.
Most of Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal state) and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878.
During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became an autonomous state within the Russian Republic. In February 1918, it declared independence and then integrated into Romania later that year following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 established, within the Ukrainian SSR, a so-called Moldavian autonomous republic on partially Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of Bessarabia.
In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR).
On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was underway, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. However, the strip of Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. The constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994, and the country became a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government.
Under the presidency of Maia Sandu, elected in 2020 on a pro-Western and anti-corruption ticket, Moldova has pursued membership of the European Union, and was granted candidate status in June 2022. Sandu has also suggested an end to Moldova’s constitutional commitment to military neutrality in favour of a closer alliance with NATO and strongly condemned Russia’s invasion of neighbouring Ukraine.
- Continent: Europe
- Capital: Monaco
- National language: French
- Religion: 86.0% Christianity, 11.7% no religion, 1.7% Judaism
- Area: 2.08 km2
- Population: 39,050
- Currency: Euro (€) (EUR)
- GDP (nominal): $190,513 Per capita
Monaco (/ˈmɒnəkoʊ/ ⓘ MON-ə-koh, French: [mɔnako]; Monégasque: Mùnegu [ˈmuneɡu]), officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera a few kilometres west of the Italian region of Liguria, in Western Europe, on the Mediterranean Sea.
It is bordered by France to the north, east and west. The principality is home to 38,682 residents, of whom 9,486 are Monégasque nationals; it is widely recognised as one of the most expensive and wealthiest places in the world. The official language of the principality is French. In addition, Monégasque (a dialect of Ligurian), English and Italian are spoken and understood by many residents.
With an area of 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi), it is the second-smallest sovereign state in the world, after Vatican City. Its 19,009 inhabitants /km2 (49,230/sq mi) make it the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km (3.40 mi) and the world’s shortest coastline of approximately 3.83 km (2.38 mi); it has a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m (5,577 and 1,145 ft).
The highest point in the state is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires ward, which is 161 m (528 ft) above sea level. The principality is about 15 km (9.3 mi) from the border with Italy. Since 2013, it consists of nine administrative wards, the largest of which is Monte Carlo (Monte Carlo/Spélugues, 0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi)), and the most populous of which is Larvotto (Larvotto/Bas Moulins, 5,443 residents as of 2008). Through ongoing land reclamation, started in 1861 and accelerating in the 1960s, Monaco’s small land mass has expanded by 20 per cent.
The principality is governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state, who wields immense political power despite his constitutional status. The prime minister, who is the head of government, can be either a Monégasque or a French citizen; the monarch consults with the Government of France before an appointment. Key members of the judiciary in Monaco are detached French magistrates.
The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. The state’s sovereignty was officially recognised by the Franco-Monégasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco’s independence and separate foreign policy, its defence is the responsibility of France, besides maintenance of two small military units.
Monaco’s economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the state’s first casino, the Monte Carlo Casino, and a railway connection to Paris. Since then, Monaco’s mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality’s status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich.
In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries. Monaco is famous as a tax haven, as the principality has no personal income tax (except for French citizens) and low business taxes. Over 30% of the residents are millionaires, with real estate prices reaching €100,000 ($116,374) per square metre in 2018.
Monaco is considered a global hub of money laundering, and in February 2023 was placed under review by the intergovernmental Financial Action Task Force watchdog, with the threat of being placed on its ‘grey list’, for its failures in financial supervision and reform to inhibit global criminality and terrorism financing.
- Continent: East Asia
- Capital: Ulaanbaatar
- National language: Mongolian
- Religion: 51.7% Buddhism, 40.6% No religion, 3.2% Islam, 2.5% Shamanism, 1.3% Christianity, 0.7% Others
- Area: 1,564,116 km2
- Population: 3,227,863
- Currency: Tögrög (MNT)
- GDP (nominal): $5,348 Per capita
Mongolia[c] (/mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ⓘ mong-GOH-lee-ə) is a landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south. The western extremity of Mongolia is only 23 km (14 mi) from Kazakhstan, and this area can resemble a quadripoint when viewed on a map. It covers an area of 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 square miles), with a population of just 3.3 million, making it the world’s most sparsely populated sovereign state.
Mongolia is the world’s largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea, and much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to roughly half of the country’s population.
The territory of modern-day Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the First Turkic Khaganate, the Second Turkic Khaganate, the Uyghur Khaganate and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China proper and established the Yuan dynasty.
After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century. By the early 20th century, almost one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks.
After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, and achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country became a satellite state of the Soviet Union. In 1924, the Mongolian People’s Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.
Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture remains integral. Buddhism is the majority religion (51.7%), with the nonreligious being the second-largest group (40.6%). Islam is the third-largest religious identification (3.2%), concentrated among ethnic Kazakhs. The vast majority of citizens are ethnic Mongols, with roughly 5% of the population being Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other ethnic minorities, who are especially concentrated in the western regions.
Mongolia is a member of the United Nations, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, G77, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Non-Aligned Movement and a NATO global partner. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups.
Montenegro (part of Yugoslavia)
- Continent: Europe
- Capital: Podgorica
- National language: Montenegrin
- Religion: 76.0% Christianity, 19.1% Islam, 1.3% no religion, 1% others, 2.6% no answer
- Area: 13,812 km2
- Population: 602,445
- Currency: Euro (€) (EUR)
- GDP (nominal): $11,338 Per capita
Montenegro (/ˌmɒntɪˈniːɡroʊ, -ˈneɪɡroʊ, -ˈnɛɡroʊ/ ⓘ MON-tin-E(E)G-roh, -AY-groh; Montenegrin: Crna Gora / Црна Гора; Albanian: Mali i Zi; lit. ’Black Mountain’) is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina to the north, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east, Albania to the southeast, and Croatia and the Adriatic Sea to the northwest with a coastline of 293.5 km.
Podgorica (Cyrillic: Подгорица) is the country’s capital and its largest city. It covers 10.4% of Montenegro’s territory of 13,812 square kilometres (5,333 sq mi), and is home to roughly 31% of its total population of 621,000. Cetinje (Cyrillic: Цетиње) is the former royal capital and cultural centre of Montenegro and is the location of several national institutions, including the official residence of the President of Montenegro.
During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia proper, the north. The Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries. From the late 14th century to the late 18th century, large parts of southern Montenegro were ruled by the Venetian Republic and incorporated into Venetian Albania.
The name Montenegro was first used to refer to the country in the late 15th century. After falling under Ottoman Empire rule, Montenegro gained semi-autonomy in 1696 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first as a theocracy and later as a secular principality. Montenegro’s independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. In 1910, the country became a kingdom.
After World War I, the kingdom became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together proclaimed a federation. In June 2006 Montenegro declared its independence from Serbia and Montenegro following an independence referendum, creating Montenegro and Serbia as they exist today. Montenegro is therefore one of the newest internationally-recognised countries in the world.
Montenegro has an upper-middle-income economy, and ranks 49th in the Human Development Index. It is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and the Central European Free Trade Agreement. Montenegro is also a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean, and has been in the process of joining the European Union since 2012.
Montserrat (UK territory)
- Continent: Caribbean
- Capital: Plymouth
- National language: English
- Area: 102 km2
- Population: 4,390
- Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Montserrat (/ˌmɒntsəˈræt/ MONT-sə-RAT) is a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean. It is part of the Leeward Islands, the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles chain of the West Indies. Montserrat is about 16 km (10 mi) long and 11 km (7 mi) wide, with roughly 40 km (25 mi) of coastline.
It is nicknamed “The Emerald Isle of the Caribbean” both for its resemblance to coastal Ireland and for the Irish ancestry of many of its inhabitants. Montserrat is the only non-fully sovereign full member of the Caribbean Community and the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States.
On 18 July 1995, the previously dormant Soufrière Hills volcano, in the southern part of the island, became active. Eruptions destroyed Montserrat’s Georgian era capital city of Plymouth. Between 1995 and 2000, two-thirds of the island’s population was forced to flee, primarily to the United Kingdom, leaving fewer than 1,200 people on the island in 1997 (rising to nearly 5,000 by 2016).
The volcanic activity continues, mostly affecting the vicinity of Plymouth, including its docking facilities, and the eastern side of the island around the former W. H. Bramble Airport, the remnants of which were buried by flows from volcanic activity on 11 February 2010.
An exclusion zone, encompassing the southern part of the island to as far north as parts of the Belham Valley, was imposed because of the size of the existing volcanic dome and the resulting potential for pyroclastic activity. Visitors are generally not permitted entry into the exclusion zone, but a view of the destruction of Plymouth can be seen from the top of Garibaldi Hill in Isles Bay. Relatively quiet since early 2010, the volcano continues to be closely monitored by the Montserrat Volcano Observatory.
In 2015, it was announced that planning would begin on a new town and port at Little Bay on the northwest coast of the island. While additional plans proceeded, the centre of government and businesses was moved to Brades. After a number of delays, including Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017 and the COVID-19 pandemic beginning in early 2020, in June 2022, ground was broken on the Little Bay Port Development Project, a £28 million project funded by the UK and the Caribbean Development Bank.
> Related post: All countries that start with E: Area, Population & GDP
- Continent: North Africa
- Capital: Rabat
- National language: Arabic – Tamazight
- Religion: 99.6% Islam (official)
- Area: 446,300 km2
- Population: 37,984,655
- Currency: Moroccan dirham (MAD)
- GDP (nominal): $3,979 Per capita
Morocco (/məˈrɒkoʊ/ ⓘ), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to the east, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the south. Morocco also claims the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and several small Spanish-controlled islands off its coast.
It spans an area of 446,300 km2 (172,300 sq mi) or 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi), with a population of roughly 37 million Citizens. Its official and predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber (Tamazight); French and the Moroccan dialect of Arabic are also widely spoken. Moroccan identity and culture is a mix of Arab, Berber, African and European cultures. Its capital is Rabat, while its largest city is Casablanca.
The region constituting Morocco has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era over 300,000 years ago, and the first Moroccan state was established by Idris I in 788. It was subsequently ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith as a regional power in the 11th and 12th centuries, under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, when it controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula and the Maghreb.
Centuries of Arab migration to the Maghreb since the 7th century shifted the demographic scope of Morocco. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Morocco faced external threats to its sovereignty, with Portugal seizing some territory and the Ottoman Empire encroaching from the east. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties otherwise resisted foreign domination, and Morocco was the only North African nation to escape Ottoman dominion.
The ‘Alawi dynasty, which rules the country to this day, seized power in 1631, and over the next two centuries expanded diplomatic and commercial relations with the Western world. Morocco’s strategic location near the mouth of the Mediterranean drew renewed European interest; in 1912, France and Spain divided the country into respective protectorates, reserving an international zone in Tangier. Following intermittent riots and revolts against colonial rule, in 1956, Morocco regained its independence and reunified.
- Continent: Africa
- Capital: Maputo
- National language: Portuguese
- Religion: 55.8% Christianity, 26.1% traditional faiths, 17.5% Islam, 0.5% no religion
- Area: 801,590 km2
- Population: 34,173,805
- Currency: Metical (MZN)
- GDP (nominal): $647 Per capita
Mozambique (/ˌmoʊzæmˈbiːk/; Portuguese: Moçambique, pronounced [musɐ̃ˈbikɨ]; Chichewa: Mozambiki; Swahili: Msumbiji; Tsonga: Muzambhiki), officially the Republic of Mozambique (República de Moçambique, pronounced [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ ðɨ musɐ̃ˈbikɨ]), is a country located in southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini and South Africa to the southwest. The sovereign state is separated from the Comoros, Mayotte and Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east. The capital and largest city is Maputo.
Northern Mozambique lies within the monsoon trade winds of the Indian Ocean and is frequently affected by disruptive weather. Between the 7th and 11th centuries, a series of Swahili port towns developed on that area, which contributed to the development of a distinct Swahili culture and dialect. In the late medieval period, these towns were frequented by traders from Somalia, Ethiopia, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and India.
The voyage of Vasco da Gama in 1498 marked the arrival of the Portuguese, who began a gradual process of colonisation and settlement in 1505. After over four centuries of Portuguese rule, Mozambique gained independence in 1975, becoming the People’s Republic of Mozambique shortly thereafter.
After only two years of independence, the country descended into an intense and protracted civil war lasting from 1977 to 1992. In 1994, Mozambique held its first multiparty elections and has since remained a relatively stable presidential republic, although it still faces a low-intensity insurgency distinctively in the farthermost regions from the southern capital and where Islam is dominant.
Mozambique is endowed with rich and extensive natural resources, notwithstanding the country’s economy is based chiefly on fishery—substantially molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms—and agriculture with a growing industry of food and beverages, chemical manufacturing, aluminium and oil. The tourism sector is expanding. South Africa remains Mozambique’s main trading partner, preserving a close relationship with Portugal with a perspective on other European markets.
- Continent: Southeast Asia
- Capital: Naypyidaw
- National language: Burmese
- Religion: 87.9% Buddhism (official), 6.2% Christianity, 4.3% Islam, 1.6% other
- Area: 676,570 km2
- Population: 57,526,449
- Currency: Kyat (K) (MMK)
- GDP (nominal): $1,381 Per capita
Myanmar (Burmese: မြန်မာ; MLCTS: mranma, pronounced [mjàɴmà]), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma (the official name until 1989), is a country in Southeast Asia. It is the largest country by area in Mainland Southeast Asia and has a population of about 55 million. It is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos and Thailand to its east and southeast, and the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal to its south and southwest. The country’s capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city is Yangon (formerly Rangoon).
Early civilisations in the area included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Myanmar and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Myanmar. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley, and following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture, and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell to Mongol invasions, and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country became the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia for a short period. The early 19th-century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British East India Company seized control of the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century, and the country became a British colony.
After a brief Japanese occupation, Myanmar was reconquered by the Allies. On 4 January 1948, Myanmar declared independence under the terms of the Burma Independence Act 1947.
Myanmar’s post-independence history has continued to be checkered by unrest and conflict. The coup d’état in 1962 resulted in a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. On 8 August 1988, the 8888 Uprising then resulted in a nominal transition to a multi-party system two years later, but the country’s post-uprising military council refused to cede power, and has continued to rule the country through to the present.
The country remains riven by ethnic strife among its myriad ethnic groups and has one of the world’s longest-running ongoing civil wars. The United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systemic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election, and a nominally civilian government was installed.
Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners were released and the 2015 Myanmar general election was held, leading to improved foreign relations and eased economic sanctions, although the country’s treatment of its ethnic minorities, particularly in connection with the Rohingya conflict, continued to be a source of international tension and consternation. Following the 2020 Myanmar general election, in which Aung San Suu Kyi’s party won a clear majority in both houses, the Burmese military (Tatmadaw) again seized power in a coup d’état.
The coup, which was widely condemned by the international community, led to continuous ongoing widespread protests in Myanmar and has been marked by violent political repression by the military, as well as a larger outbreak of the civil war.
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FAQs about countries that start with M
Get quick answers to your questions with our FAQs about countries that start with M. Whether you’re planning a trip, conducting research, or just curious, find concise information on geography, languages, and more. Simplify your exploration of the world by accessing essential facts about the countries beginning with the letter M in our user-friendly FAQ section.
Which country starts with the letter M has the largest area?
Out of all the nations that start with M, Mexico stands out as the largest in terms of geographical expanse. Covering a vast area of 1,972,550 square kilometers, Mexico boasts an expansive and diverse landscape that encompasses everything from arid deserts to lush rainforests, soaring mountain ranges, and pristine coastlines along the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
Which country starts with the letter M has the largest population?
Out of all the countries that start with M, Mexico stands out as the most populous, boasting a staggering population of 129,875,529 people. This vibrant and diverse country, located in North America, holds a rich tapestry of cultural heritage, a captivating history, and a unique blend of traditions that contribute to its demographic significance.
Which country starts with the letter M has the largest GDP (nominal)?
Within the category of countries whose names commence with the letter ‘M’, Monaco stands out as the nation boasting the highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) when measured on a nominal basis. The nominal GDP for Monaco reaches an impressive figure of $190,513 per capita. This small but economically robust principality, nestled on the French Riviera, demonstrates a remarkable level of economic prosperity when considering the per-person income.
In conclusion, this exploration of countries that start with M unveils diverse landscapes, demographics, and economic landscapes. From Mongolia’s vast steppes to Mexico’s rich cultural heritage, each nation contributes uniquely to the global tapestry, making the M-group an intriguing set of countries to study.
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